Flying fox gestation length varies among species; gestation length is 140–190 days (4. 6–6. 3 months). Females have a litter size of one young at a time, called a pup. Twins have been occasionally documented in some species, however. Twins can be fraternal, identical, or the result of superfetation. Pups are altricial and sparsely furred at birth. Pups are relatively small at birth, weighing approximately 12% of the mother's weight. Bats in other genera can have pups that weigh as much as 30% of the mother's weight at birth. They cling to their mothers' abdomens, gripping her fur with their thumb claws and teeth; females carry the pups for the first several weeks of life. After this, the females may leave the pups behind at the roost at night while they forage. As with nearly all bat species, males do not assist females in parental care. While male flying foxes of at least one species, the Bismarck masked flying fox, can lactate, it is unclear if the lactation is functional and males actually nurse pups or if it is a result of stress or malnutrition. Pups fledge beginning at 3 months old, but may not be weaned until 4–6 months old. Pups may stay with their mothers until age one. Flying foxes do not reach sexual maturity until 1. 5–2 years old. Females can have up to two litters annually, though one is the norm due to the long weaning period. Most flying foxes are seasonal breeders and give birth in the spring, though the Mariana fruit bat seems to have aseasonal breeding with new pups documented throughout the year. Females remain fertile with no decrease in reproductive capability for at least the first 12 or 13 years of life.